Reef Doctor is Cleaning Up!

Every week we perform beach clean-ups in Ifaty with a group of Reef Doctor interns and volunteers, and children from the village. We come across a wide range of litter including diapers, pieces of glass, plastic wrappers, plastic bottles, clothes, bags and fishing nets. Over the past three months we collected over 700 kg of litter just from the beach in Ifaty! And yet, it is still not a clean beach. The majority of the litter found is clothes, while 12% includes disposed fishing gear used by the local fishermen including fishing nets, mosquito nets, plastic bottles and flip flops used as floaters and buoys, and batteries used for torches during night fishing activities. Besides this a lot of plastic for domestic use is also found.

beach clean

The problem in Ifaty is, that due to lack of knowledge and infrastructure, garbage is not disposed of properly. The disposal of all kinds of garbage is generally through burning or burying it in a pit. This means it’s not contained and can easily end up somewhere else in the village and on the beach, and eventually in the ocean.

Marine litter is not just a local problem. It is one of the biggest environmental challenges the world faces today. The majority of marine litter consists of plastic. Plastic production has increased dramatically since 1950, which is related to a growing population. Globally over 300 million tons of plastic was produced in 2014. Plastic is designed to be durable, however, it is commonly used for single use. It takes a long time to degrade and if not disposed of and handled properly, plastic waste litters the marine environment, causing damage to marine life.

Marine animals suffer from marine litter by entanglement, suffocation and ingestion. Entanglement occurs most often with species such as whales, turtles, dolphins, seals, dugongs, sharks and large fish. In 2015, over 30,000 cases of entanglement were recorded. Entanglement can cause animals to drown, starve, or die from strangulation or infected injuries. ‘Ghost fishing’ is a major cause of the entanglement of marine animals; animals caught unintentionally by abandoned fishing gear. The presence of marine litter also results in ingestion by marine animals. A review in 2014 revealed marine litter was found in 100% of marine turtles, 59% of whales, 36% of seals and 40% of seabird species examined. The effects include partial blockage, damage to the digestive tract and reduction in foraging. Which all can result in poor nutrition and a decline in health. Marine life can also be harmed through suffocation. Large items, including discarded or lost fishing gear, quickly sink to the sea floor. These items can smother the seabed, affecting marine organisms and the benthic composition, and turn sediments anoxic.

Besides the negative ecological impacts, marine litter affects ecosystem services – the benefits humans have from the natural environment. Economic activities rely on the ecosystem services from the marine environment. In the Bay of Ranobe people rely on the marine environment for fishing and tourism.

Clean-ups are a good method to reduce litter. But its much more effective to prevent litter at its source. Therefore, we intend to implement the first waste management programme in Ifaty. Our goal is to keep Ifaty clean. It is important that the community is involved and that they understand the importance of the programme. We have already had a successful meeting with important members of the community who have approval implementation of the programme, a great first step!

Through educating the community, provision of garbage bins, and implementation of a collecting and recycling scheme, we can effectively reduce marine littler, contributing to healthy marine ecosystems in the Bay of Ranobe and ensuring that the community can continue to rely on fisheries in the future. Additionally, this project will offer the opportunity to expand the skills within the community, creating alternative livelihoods and income through the waste collection and recycling scheme.

To get the project started, we are launching an important fundraising campaign in the next few days, please stay tuned!

Article written by RD Intern Simone de Graaf


New Marine Reserve and Artificial Reef Site in the Bay of Ranobe

It’s been a great start to 2019 for Reef Doctor! The official opening of a second artificial reef site and a third marine reserve took place in January, significant steps forward in expanding marine conservation and management across the Bay of Ranobe!

After initial successes with the first ever artificial reef in the bay, Vato Mahavelo (“the rock that gives life”) I, and six artificial reefs built with WWF further south in Anakao, Reef Doctor, in collaboration with the fishermen’s association FI.MI.HA.RA, has implemented a second artificial reef, Vato Mahavelo II, near a reef called Vatosoa. The planning and implementation of Vato Mahavelo II began in early 2018 and was made possible by a grant from the Waitt Foundation. Like Vato Mahavelo I, it consists of simple, low-cost bommie structures built with locally abundant limestone. Following construction of the 120 m x 120 m artificial reef by the Reef Doctor science team and local fishermen, it was closed to fishing for 6 months from August 2018 to January 2019 to allow colonisation and aggregation of marine life to the structures. The Reef Doctor science team conducted baseline marine life surveys at the site and continues to monitor changes; they have already observed fish recruitment to the site.

artificial reef

artificial reef

The aim of this artificial reef is to provide a new viable habitat for marine life, bolster local fish abundance and fishing yields, and reduce fishing stress on adjacent overfished reefs. This will benefit the local fishing communities of four villages; Mangily, Amboaboake, Madiorano, and Ambolomailaky representing several thousands of people. By providing viable alternative fishing grounds for local fishermen, it then becomes possible to implement additional marine reserves in the bay with compliance from the local fishing community. Therefore, the creation of Vato Mahavelo II has allowed Reef Doctor and FI.MI.HA.RA to create a third marine reserve in the bay (after Ankaranjelita and Rose Garden). The site known as Vatosoa is extremely rich in biodiversity. The wider community within the Bay of Ranobe including the tourist industry, has embraced this achievement. The 250 m x 250 m guarded reef will be closed permanently to fishing but still available to tourists, supporting local piroguiers who can make a providing marine tours rather than fishing.


On January 22nd, Vato Mahavelo II and the Vatosoa marine reserve were officially opened in an event held in the village of Madiorano. Local authorities such as the Regional Direction of Marine Resources and Fisheries in Toliara (DRRHP), the Regional Direction of Ecology, Environment and Forestry (DREEF), Mayor of Manombo, Mayor of Belalanda, 13 Chiefs of Village within the Bay of Ranobe, CDG FIMIHARA, IH.SM and all Reef Doctor’s partner and tourism industries were invited. During this event, the chief of Madiorano village, the Mayor of Manombo, the President of FI.MI.HA.RA, Reef Doctor representatives, and the DRRHP talked about the importance of this achievement not only for fisheries and marine conservation but also for tourism. The event was a huge success and even broadcast on national TV!

This event marks a significant achievement for marine conservation and fisheries management in the Bay of Ranobe. By implementing a network of artificial reefs across the bay, we are able to support the livelihoods of vulnerable local fishing communities while protecting the last few remaining natural viable reefs. Stay tuned for further updates.

bay of ranobe

Special thanks to all of Reef Doctor’s partners and collaborators: DRRHP, DREEF, local authorities, IH.SM, Waitt Foundation, WWF, WCS, MIHARI, IOT, Ocean Farmers, COPEFRITO, Blue Ventures, and local hoteliers and local diving centres.


Madagascar is Burning

In this article, Reef Doctor Honko Manager Antoine Lechevalier discusses the issues of drought, fire and charcoal production that are plaguing the Atsimo-Andrefana (southwest) region of Madagascar.

“These days Madagascar is on fire. When taking the RN7 from Antananarivo to Toliara, hundreds of fires burning in the savanna that replaced the original forest can be seen.

The situation on the coast is not better. On the 10th of March 2018, 8.5 Ha of mangrove and 14 Ha of saltwater marsh including reeds, grasses, and shrubs (rushes) of Belalanda, in SW Madagascar, were destroyed by fire. This event highlights the fire problem in Madagascar. Despite anti-fire precautions and awareness programmes, people are pushed by poverty, having little or no alternative livelihood strategies, continue burning the forest and producing charcoal for their survival.

The island nation of Madagascar is famous for its endemic biodiversity. Since it split from the African continent an estimated 160 million years ago, it has developed its own distinct ecosystems and extraordinary wildlife. An approximate of 89% of its plant life 95% of its reptiles, and 92% of its mammals exist nowhere else on Earth. Madagascar’s more than 4,800 km of coastline and over 250 islands are home to some of the world’s largest coral reef systems and most the extensive mangrove areas in the Western Indian Ocean.

The small-scale but widespread clearances of the forests have already had a profound effect on the island. 90% of Madagascar’s original forests have been lost due to human activity since their arrival a mere 2000 years ago. Aerial photographs and remote sensing images indicate that almost 40% of Madagascar’s forest cover disappeared from the 1950s to 2000 (Harper et al. 2007). It is no wonder then, that most of Madagascar’s unique and endemic flora and fauna face extinction. Annually enormous forest areas of Madagascar are threatened by flames, from uncontrolled wildfires and lands burned for grazing. This problem concerns the entire island. Lush rainforests, tropical dry forest, grassland and even mangrove are impacted. Each year, an estimate of half of the island’s grasslands and woodlands burn. It is the results of three activities; slash and burn agriculture, logging for timber and charcoal production. These practices are jeopardising the island’s habitats. As a result, several charismatic species such as many species of lemurs and chameleons that evolved here over millions of years may become extinct before the end of the century.

Isalo lemur

One of the reasons for this extensive deforestation is that Madagascar is amongst the world’s poorest countries and people’s day-to-day income generation is focused on the exploitation of natural resources. Rural populations of which over 70% have less than 4 years of education live off the land developing ways to exploit an already stressed ecosystem (STRAT 2018). Deforestation has long been an issue for Madagascar and, to support the population increase of 4.6% per year (STRAT 2018) people must seek new land to cultivate, notably in the forests.


The Atsimo Andrefana region is located in South-West Madagascar. It is the biggest and, with a population density of 31 inhab/km², one of the least densely populated regions of Madagascar. The region is struck by long-term drought. Since May 2015, there has been 50% less rain than normal levels. The lack of rain impoverishes crops and seeds stocks, leading to poorer harvests and increasing poverty and malnutrition. According to the Plan de réponse stratégique à la sécheresse dans le grand-sud (Strategic response plan for the drought in the south), 49% of the population suffers from alarming hunger level in the Ampanihy district and thousands of people are malnourished. Hoping to find work, people move to the mines or the cities. The coastal areas are also refugee for poverty-stricken communities that increase pressure on the fish resources and threaten the remaining mangrove forests located in the north. Furthermore, droughts have forced hundreds of farmers into charcoal production. The lack of control makes it an easy but unsustainable source of income. Consequently, the endemic spiny forests are being destroyed at an alarming rate.

In 17 years, the Atsimo Andrefana region has lost 60% of its intact forests and 66% of its degraded forests. While drought forces people to look for alternative livelihoods, commercial interests in charcoal increases. Considering the fact that a bag of charcoal is worth much more in the highlands than on the coast, illegal charcoal exportation is often a tempting source of incomes for the rural, poverty-stroked, population of the South-West. The number of charcoal producers increases every year and so does the uncontrolled wildfires initiating from charcoal farms.


The fire that destroyed 8.5 Ha of the mangrove of Belalanda may not be intentional but it is likely that it started from a site that produces charcoal and then spread to the reeds and forest. It shows how the mangroves and forests of Atsimo Andrefana are vulnerable to fires. Especially with drought increasing human pressure and making the forest more prone to catching fire.

Forests, and especially mangroves, are extremely valuable. They reduce atmospheric carbon concentrations, provide shelter for Madagascar’s unique biodiversity and help to produce rain. These environments are even more valuable in a country threatened by desertification and lack of resources.

In light of these increasing problems, it appears that policy, strategy and clear regulation need to be developed and implemented to stop the fires that destroy Madagascar. Organisations such as Reef Doctor are working really hard in the field to tackle these massive problems. Mangrove cover at the Reef Doctor Honko (mangrove) project site is increasing thanks to replanting efforts and community-led management initiatives, and a dynamic agroforestry project aimed to improving livelihoods and restoring natural forest has recently started. However encouraging the results may be, it is more than necessary for national authorities to take a strong hold on the issues.

mangrove replanting

Farmers need to be trained in new ways to produce drought-resistant crops and use the same plot of land instead of cutting forests down to cultivate new fields (tavy or slash and burn agriculture). The local community needs to better control and manage local natural resources. Forests should be planted and managed in a sustainable way in order to be used as sources of charcoal in the mid and long terms.

Written by Antoine Lechevalier
Article originally featured on the blog site created by Sasa Danon

Winter Doesn’t Just Mean Thicker Wetsuits…

Volunteers and interns play a significant role in our reef restoration programme in the Bay of Ranobe. Here, Reef Doctor volunteer Elizabeth Pasea describes our coral transplantation project which takes place in Madagascar’s winter months (June-October).


“Cooler waters in winter in the Bay of Ranobe means it’s coral transplant season here at Reef Doctor. We transplant coral to repair existing reefs damaged by fishing gear, storms, or divers’ fin strikes, increase biodiversity of coral species within particular coral environments, and also to create new reef habitats or supplement artificial reefs.

The Bay of Ranobe is largely enclosed by a barrier reef and its calm waters require careful stewardship to prevent overfishing. By increasing the areas within the bay that are populated with coral, additional habitats for fish spawning and feeding will become available, increasing the general fish population and ensuring a more sustainable fishery. It is also hoped that rich coral environments will attract more tourists and create new types of livelihoods for people here.

Transplanting coral starts with searching for ‘corals of opportunity’. These are broken bits of hard coral that are detached from their former colonies during storms or contact with fishing gear. We have favourite spots where we search around the likely types of coral on the seabed. I was surprised that fragments as small as my little toe can be viable for transplantation. If we did not gather these fragments, it’s unlikely that they would form new colonies where they fall. Gloves are necessary to handle the fragments- oil on human skin can damage coral, (and some coral can damage human skin!); then we place them in zip lock bags under water. Back on the boat, they are placed in a shaded bucket as we motor to our next destination, either a coral nursery or artificial reef site. We take care to keep the fragments cool, to prevent them from secreting mucous, a sign of stress.

If the fragments are destined to be placed straight onto their next permanent home, we dive with minimum delay, moulding epoxy on the boat and remembering to work it to keep it soft, as we descend to the reef. Once we have found a suitable small depression in the substrate (usually rock or dead coral), we clean any algae away with a toothbrush and mould epoxy around the base of the coral fragment to hold it in place. Over the next day or so, it hardens. In time, a successful coral transplant’s polyps will start to encrust over the epoxy and the substrate, and a thriving colony will form.

coral transplantation

coral transplantation

If we don’t have a new permanent site for our coral fragments, we place them in a coral nursery. Before we dive for the second time, we superglue the live fragments to pieces of dead coral; the dead coral can then be affixed to underwater structures such as tables or metal rebar arches with cable ties. The live coral will start to encrust over the dead coral, instead of over the nursery structure, which makes it easier to perform the transplant once a new permanent home is found. As with any garden, we check on it frequently, and clean away algae (with toothbrushes), from our coral ‘babies’ weekly.”

coral transplantation

coral transplantation

coral transplantation

Blog by Reef Doctor volunteer Elizabeth Pasea
Photo credits: Daniel Gaul

Elizabeth Passea

‘Reef Safe’ Sun Protection: an update

We have previously written about the damaging effects of sunscreen on coral reefs and have banned the use of commercial non ‘reef safe’ sunscreens at Reef Doctor. In this new blog, Reef Doctor volunteer Elizabeth Pasea updates us on the issue and recommends the best approach for protecting your skin from the harmful effects of UV radiation with minimal impact to coral reefs:

“Growing up under a hole in the ozone layer in New Zealand, I was aware of how important sunscreen is to protect against skin cancer. I have more recently learned that the ingredients in most commercial sunscreens are damaging to coral. Awareness is spreading; Hawaii has recently banned the ingredients octinoxate and oxybenzone due to their negative impact on coral ecosystems.

Studies have shown that even ingredients advertised as ‘reef safe’ can still increase oxidation and acidity levels in water and contribute to coral stress, where they may expel the algae which reside in them and give the coral it’s colour; the process known as coral bleaching. Non-organic sunscreen ingredients, zinc oxide or titanium dioxide, are less toxic than petroleum-based ingredients; however their nano particles may still damage coral.

Elizabeth Passea

80% of the ReefDoctor volunteers currently on camp have titanium dioxide based sunscreen, and 20% zinc oxide. Most of us found that we had to search hard for these products – they were not the most readily available products.

One of the things to notice when arriving in this part of Madagascar is that some of the women wear mud on their faces during the day for sun protection, as demonstrated in the photo below by Reef Doctor Support staff member Hortence. As it happens, titanium dioxide is just about to start being mined in Ranobe, not far from the Reef Doctor camp, science is catching up with local Vezo custom!

local women with facepaint


When diving at Reef Doctor, whether gathering data on the health of the reef or transplanting coral, we try to minimise our application of ‘reef-safe’ sunscreen to dry skin; when applied to wet skin it is liable to rinse off straight away. We also prefer hats and clothes to protect our skin when on the boat and during surface intervals.

It’s not only swimmers and divers who introduce sunscreen and other chemicals to the coral environment: chemicals used on land and washed off into many municipal waste systems also end up in the ocean. A recent study (Corinaldesi et al, 2018) showed that patented titanium based ingredients ‘Optisol’ And ‘Eusolex T2000’ have significantly lower levels of toxicity to coral than zinc oxide. Hopefully, we will see more products with these ingredients available to buy soon.

In the meantime, please read the ingredients! The conservative application of products containing non-nano zinc oxide and titanium oxide applied to dry skin remains the best option to help ensure coral ecosystems survive beyond 2050.”

Blog by Elizabeth Pasea

Photo credits: Elizabeth Pasea & Margot Chapon